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Prevention interventions designed specifically for early developmental periods can address these risk factors by building on existing strengths of the child and his or her parents (or other caregivers) and by providing skills (e.g., general parenting skills and specific skills like managing aggressive behavior), problem-solving strategies, and support in areas of the child’s life that are underdeveloped or lacking.The child’s stage of life, aspects of his social and physical environments, and life events he experiences over time all contribute to the his physical, psychological, emotional, and cognitive development.. Brooke An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.

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Transition periods include birth, transition to elementary school, dating, leaving home, vocational choice, marriage, early childhood rearing, and parent of child entering school.

The spheres of influence include: genes/biology from prenatal through early adulthood; maternal health from prenatal through infancy; family from prenatal through early adulthood; community from prenatal through early adulthood; classroom from preschool to leaving home; peers from preschool through early adulthood; intimate pair/family from the beginning to the end of early adulthood; and work from the beginning to the end of early adulthood.] Developmental milestones refer to particular physical, cognitive, social, or emotional capabilities that are ordinarily acquired within a certain age range.

People who use drugs typically begin doing so during adolescence or young adulthood (see “Adolescent Drug Use”), but the ground may be prepared for drug use much earlier, by circumstances and events that affect the child during the first several years of life and even before birth.

The first, overarching principle drawn from the research reviewed for this resource is that intervening early in childhood can alter the life course trajectory of children in a positive direction.

How successfully or unsuccessfully a child meets the demands and challenges arising from a given transition, and whether the child meets milestones on an appropriate schedule, can affect his or her future course of development, including risk for drug abuse or other mental, emotional, or behavioral problems during adolescence.

A variety of factors, known as , can interrupt or interfere with unfolding developmental patterns in all of these periods and, especially, in the transitions between them.The age range for the interventions that form the basis for the principles of prevention described in this resource is prenatal through 8 years.Collection of data from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) on age at first use of illegal drugs across the U. begins at age 12 years, with data from 2014 indicating that 3.4 percent of 12- to 13-year-old children have used an illegal drug in the past month (including inappropriate use of prescription drugs), 2.1 percent are current alcohol users, and 1.1 percent are current tobacco users.For example, most infants crawl around 9 months and walk by 12 to 15 months; most toddlers can speak one- and two-word phrases between ages 1 and 2; and so on (see gov/ncbddd/actearly/milestones/index.html).Over the course of development, these emerging capabilities generally trigger changes in other people’s expectations and responses—for instance, upon entering elementary school, teachers will expect children to be able to sit and be attentive.Because of their introduction of new potential risk factors, transitions are sometimes called sensitive, critical, or vulnerable periods, and they are prime opportunities for preventive intervention.